This blog post is the first in a series which will examine the population of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, around the time of the Lord of the Rings. Tolkien made little comment concerning the practicalities of everyday life in Middle-earth beyond his fastidious descriptions of Hobbit-life, so forming a picture of the its demography must rely on much guess-work and inference. I’ve relied on the original source material (the books) as much as possible, but I’ve also pulled from relevant historical data that may have influenced Tolkien in order to fill in the gaps. Without further ado, here’s the first in the series – Gondor!


Although it had suffered numerous assaults from the forces of Mordor, Gondor stood at the end of the Third Age as the most populous free realm in Middle-earth.

In the north, the fields of Anórien were well-populated, as were the Pelennor Fields surrounding the city of Minas Tirith. Minas Tirith (“the Tower of Guard” in Sindarin) was Gondor’s capital and probably one of its largest population centers. However, the neighboring city of Osgiliath, once Gondor’s capital and a great trading hub on the river Anduin, was ruined and almost totally depopulated.

Fortunately, southern Gondor had fared better. Shielded by the efforts of the defenders of Minas Tirith and the Rangers of Ithilien, the Southern Fiefs (totally ignored in Peter Jackson’s film adaptation) were populous and prosperous. With a temperate, Mediterranean climate*, we can imagine that the coast along the Bay of Belfalas was dotted with homesteads and farms. The city of Dol Amroth represented the crown jewel of Gondor’s south; though Tolkien never described the city, we can see glimpses of its majesty through his reverent description of its swan-knights – men of “high blood”, “tall… and proud with sea-grey eyes”.

So much for description. Can we find any hard numbers?

At face value, the Lord of the Rings is about a military conflict between good versus evil. Thus, we must rely on military statistics to get a more complete idea of Gondor’s demography. Indeed, since we can readily imagine Gondor was a highly martial society, built to weather constant assault by a persistent evil of untold power and ingenuity, determining the numerical strength of Gondor’s armies should help us find a rough estimate of Gondor’s overall population.

Let’s start with Minas Tirith. In her Atlas of Middle Earth, Karen Wynn Fonstad estimates that, at the Battle of Pelennor Fields, after summing up all the oblique references to various “out-companies”, the local garrison of Minas Tirith numbered only 2000 men.

Now we can rely on historical example to figure out how 2,000 men fits into the overall population of a city. The clearest and most direct parallel would be Constantinople, right at the time of its fall to the Ottomans. In 1453, Sultan Mehmed II’s massive Turkish army besieged the city of Constantinople. The Siege of Minas Tirith clearly echoes the 1453 Siege of Constantinople – a hopelessly outnumbered army defending the last fortress of a declining civilization against a vastly superior invader. Tolkien himself acknowledged the parallels, referring to Minas Tirith as a “half-ruinous Byzantine City” in his letters.

minas tirith vs constantinople
Inset: Siege of Constantinople by Jean Chartier

In 1453, Constantinople had approximately 50,000 residents, and was able to muster a garrison of around 5,000 against the Turks. That corresponds to a rule-of-thumb per-capita militarization ratio of 10%. Before you gasp in horror and spill mead all over your scrolls – that’s a militarization ratio twice that of North Korea – remember that Minas Tirith was a fortress-city, serving an explicit military purpose. Applying our 10% ratio to Minas Tirith gives a population around 20,000. At the time of the siege, the city’s population was likely larger than this, as many residents of Anórien and the Pelennor must have fled into the safety of the city’s walls with the approach of Mordor’s host.

Now, on to the Southern Fiefs, the heart of Gondor’s population. The fear of an attack on the South by Mordor limited the South’s contribution to Minas Tirith’s defenses to but a “tithe of their strength”. In the Atlas, Fonstad pegs their number at roughly 3000. If we take the word “tithe” literally – a tenth – we can estimate that the Southern Fiefs had the capability of fielding 30,000 fighting men.

Of course, it would be unfair to apply Minas Tirith’s 10% DPRK-esque militarization ratio to the peaceful South in order to find its total population. Minas Tirith was a watchful fortress guarding against the evil of Mordor; the Southern Fiefs were places were people lived to prosper and multiply.

Again, we’ll have to rely on historical analogues to find an appropriate militarization ratio. With an area roughly similar to medieval England, comparing the Southern Fiefs to England around 1066, the year of the Norman invasion, would not be a bad choice. Unlike the fortress-cities of Minas Tirith and Constantinople, both England and the Southern Fiefs were probably agricultural and feudal, relying on a local levy system to raise troops for defense.

The Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings

Thanks to the Battle of Hastings, we have some reasonably accurate numbers about England’s military strength at this time – the English fyrd, or local levy, could muster around 14,000 men. Getting an accurate reading of medieval England’s overall population is harder, but the Domesday Book of 1086, compiled by William the Conqueror, provides a decent estimate of around 1.4 to 1.9 million. To make the math easy, let’s lean to the lower end of that range and estimate that England’s levies could muster 14,000 men out of a total population of 1.4 million – a militarization ratio of 1%. Apply that ratio to Gondor’s Southern Fiefs with their 30,000 men-at-arms, and we find a total population of roughly 3 million.

Since the Southern Fiefs represented the bulk of Gondor’s population, adding on the 20,000 of Minas Tirith, the people of Anórien and the scattered populations in the South and East probably amounts to little more than a rounding error. With that, we can come to a final estimate of Gondor’s total population at the end of the Third Age – somewhere between 3 and 4 million.

That concludes the Gondor section of my Demography of Middle-earth; the next part will concentrate on Rohan.

Addendum: Some readers have commented that the figure of 3-4 million (though, really, closer to the lower bound of that range) seems too high, especially for a population constantly ravaged by war and disaster. I really, really appreciate these comments! I’m making a lot of assumptions here, and there is certainly more than one correct interpretation of the data. Here are some of my responses to common objections:

1) I got the impression that Gondor was a lot more sparsely populated than having 3 million people would imply.

Karen Wynn Fonstad estimates that Gondor’s total land area was 716,426 square miles. Dividing 3 million by a land mass that large gives a population density of a little more than 4 people per square mile, a population density lower than that of modern Mongolia.

2) 3 million seems very high for a population constantly ravaged by war and disease – the War of the Last Alliance was only 3000 years ago! 

This is definitely a fair point – I was a little surprised myself when I calculated these numbers. However, do not underestimate the ability of humans to repopulate and multiply. The world’s population was around 200 million in 0 AD, compared to 400 million in 1000 AD (I used pre-industrial numbers to avoid including the benefits of mechanized agricultural production and modern medicine). That gives a doubling time of 1000 years. This means that Gondor’s population could have been as low as 375,000 in order to reach a population of 3 million 3000 years later. Also, don’t discount the possibility of migration and even immigration from other parts of Middle-Earth – there were other populations of Men who could intermarry with and join the Numenorean settlers.

3) Gondor’s Southern Fiefs are not comparable to pre-1066 England. War-ravaged Gondor would likely have a much higher conscription rate than England (which enjoyed relative peace), meaning that Gondor’s overall population was likely much lower than its army size would imply.

This is a very fair point. Ultimately, any calculation of Gondor’s population comes down to what assumptions you make. I assumed that Gondor’s South was spared a lot of the damage of Gondor’s wars, making it a good fit to compare with England. Though my memory may fail me, aside from the occasional conflicts with the Corsairs of Umbar, the Southern Fiefs were generally spared from the destruction that ravaged northern Gondor. Most of Gondor’s battles – the Battles of Dagorlad and the Field of Celebrant come to mind – were fought in the northeast. Thus, I think Gondor and pre-1066 England are decent analogues, at least in terms of population.


* If you accept the not-too-onerous proposal that the Shire is an analogue of Tolkien’s native England, southern Gondor around the Bay of Belfalas would have a latitude similar to that of the south of France and Italy.

  • Ben

    Excellent write up. I look forward to seeing this done on Rohan. :)

    • diogenes

      Thanks Ben, I really appreciate it! I’m hard at work already 😉

  • Cameron

    Which of Tolkien’s letters mentions the parallel to Constantinople? I’m doing research for a paper and I’d really like that source. Thanks!

    • diogenes

      I don’t have the book with me, but I recall seeing that in Wayne G. Hammonds and Christina Scull’s Lord of the Rings: A Reader’s Companion. Hope that helps!

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  • Kyle Hill

    Which climate wins the battle for hottest weather. Minas Tritith or Sacramento California? Both places look like they are open to the sea breeze from the south west with the Anduin river breeze in Gonder and the Delta Breeze in Sacramento which cools temps off to the mid to high 80s in the afternoons. Though in Sacramento when the sea breeze is killed the temps can quickly soar to 105-110 range.

    The reason why I am asking here and not on a Lord Of The Rings forum is because I did a search on the climate of Middle Earth which the latest topic is like 2005 or so. Very old. I don’t think my topic will get much response there and I don’t think it will here either but I think I have a slightly higher chance here of getting a reply from someone.

    Plus I am having a headache so I have had to reedit my post a lot due to typing things backwards.

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  • Christian camlin

    To be Honest I have a hard time imagining Gondor’s population being only in the 3-4 million range.for starters their are a great many regions of Gondor and if we assume the cities have fair populations.And the book implies that in the regions aroung Minas Tirith and Osgiliath there had been a very large population before Osgiliath fell.And while many in Osgiliath would have perished my impression is that these wars took a number of generations.Most likely the women and children would have been moved to safer positions well before Osgiliath fell.The evacuation of the river valley would have led to Minas Tirith absorbing a large population of Refugees.The constant wars would have resulted in a tradition of Early marriages & a high rate of reproduction especially in the areas nearest to Mordor.While the primary fighting had happened in the River Valley it is likely they had been drawing men in from all over Gondor for a couple Generations to continue the fight against Mordor.That said such constant fighting probably had left the entire kingdom a little short on men over age 20.As such troop numbers would lead to a low count of the overall population.I’m not sure what the count would be but one gets the impression that hundreds of thousands have fought in the Anduin river valley over the years.Somehow I see a state somewhere between 7 & 10 million strong that has relied on the state of Rohan and its probable 3-4 million in times of crisis.When you consider the sheer volume of creatures that come out of or are aligned with Mordor a nation of 3-4 million would have been crushed long ago.

    • Zachary C. Booz

      I don’t think this is reasonable. I had the contrary reaction– the Kingdom was nigh-emptied to fight off multiple fronts of attack, there were next to no civilians in Minas Tirith, and as many as possible were evacuated. Having just read RoTK again this week, the numbers at Pellenor Fields were around 12 thousand, and the army that Aragorn rode to the black gate was only 7 thousand. LOTR wiki is telling me 14-16,000 were present. This was basically the last stand of the Southern Kingdom– win or lose.

      I have a hard time believing there were 4 million people untapped in a total war situation. It seems an awful waste for people who should be defending their homes against a real and present threat to not be fighting.

      Even if we take the higher number, it is 10% of 160,000 that equals 16,000. As a matter of opinion, I simply don’t think Tolkien’s hypothetical levy was 1%.

      That is just too low for how dire the situation was between Gondor and Mordor– the capital only survived through serendipity, or fate, if you will, no through might of arms, and a timely arrival of a cavalry nearly equal in size to all the forces Gondor could muster, helped a great deal.

      Good work regardless!

  • JasonCarney

    This is wonderful. I like your picture of Gondor with the Constantinople inset. That is a clever comparison. I am convinced. I might add to this the idea of the atmosphere in Tolkien’s world; although not explicitly stated, Middle-earth “feels” sparsely populated. For example, as the Rohirrim and company ride back to Meduseld after Gandalf breaks Saruman’s staff, they encounter the Dúnedain, and this encounter is a surprise. This is just one example. What this demonstrates to me is that meeting travelers on the road, in the wide expanses, is a rare event. This might be evidence for believing in the low-end of your estimate. Then again, the example I cite is in Rohan. Perhaps meetings on the road in the southern fiefs of Gondor is less uncommon.